Xiangyan Ruan*, Meng Li and Alfred O. Mueck Pages 4685 - 4692 ( 8 )
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent female reproductive endocrine disease. It has been associated with a number of severe reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. However, there are still open questions especially regarding the best long-term management.
Methods: We summarized the literature focused on the symptoms and negative long-term consequences of untreated PCOS and the existing options for the treatment. We reviewed the Pubmed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and the relevant literature for the last 20 years. Included in this review also are new results of own (published) research and own experience from treating daily more than 100 PCOS patients.
Results: Obesity is one of the most common findings. It can cause abnormal ovulations which can lead to infertility. Important long-term consequences can be adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is an agreement that the risk of endometrial cancer can be increased. Insulin resistance, important within the pathophysiology of PCOS, predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle modifications including dietary changes, exercise and weight loss are first-line interventions for many patients. Well known drug treatments such as metformin, oral contraceptives, etc. should be selected according to the individual situation and patients' needs. Regarding newer methods in the long-term management of PCOS, we found that orlistat may help to achieve weight loss and to improve lipid and glucose metabolism.
Conclusion: In addition to pharmacological interventions, long-term standardized individualized management of PCOS patients is needed to achieve fertility and to reduce the risk of metabolic related diseases.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, long-term management, obesity, cancer, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, lifestyle interventions.
Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing