Farrukh Zeeshan*, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Manisha Pandey and Bapi Gorain Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )
Background: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of inter-individual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the development of novel drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Three-dimensional (3-D) printed medicines are transforming the current pharmaceutical market as a potential alternative to conventional medicine.
Methods: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.
Results: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition, and laser-based writing systems are the most popular. 3-D printing technology has been successfully employed in the fabrication of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication
Conclusion: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bioequivalence.
3-D printing, drug delivery, personalised medicine, fused deposition modelling, direct-write, zip dose.
Department of Pharmaceutical technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University (IMU), Kuala Lumpur-57000, Department of Pharmaceutical technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University (IMU), Kuala Lumpur-57000, Department of Pharmaceutical technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University (IMU), Kuala Lumpur-57000, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Taylor’s University, Selangor-47500