Kyle M. Markel* and Efthymios D. Avgerinos
Antiplatelet pharmacotherapy for endovascular interventions has been widely adopted, with clopidogrel being one of the most common agents prescribed. A fraction of patients are resistant to clopidogrel resulting in decreased platelet inhibition despite adequate use. This finding is often termed high platelet reactivity (HPR) and may lead to decreased patency in lower extremity arterial endovascular interventions. Current literature on HPR with lower extremity arterial endovascular interventions is limited to only a few studies. Resistance to clopidogrel is largely a result of CYP2C19 enzyme loss of function alleles. Several tests are available to measure clopidogrel resistance but light transmittance aggregometry remains the gold standard; yet direct genetic testing may be more reliable. One-year patency rates following lower extremity arterial endovascular interventions in patients with clopidogrel resistance (HPR) range between 35%-83% whereas those with proper response to clopidogrel range between 73%-100%. Patients with decreased CYP2C19 activity show significant decrease in one-year patency of endovascular femoropopliteal interventions (35% vs. 73%; p=0.006). Among patients tested for platelet function after in-stent thrombosis, up to 53% are resistant to clopidogrel. Lack of robust data limits our ability to predict patency in lower extremity arterial interventions for patients with HPR, but there is little doubt that longer patency seems to favor non-HPR patients. Large population, prospective trials are needed to guide our practice.
clopidogrel, antiplatelet, antiplatelet resistance, high platelet reactivity, endovascular, stent peripheral arterial disease
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania