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Cytisine - From the Past to the Future

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 37 ]

Author(s):

Aleksandra Paduszyńska, Maciej Banach, Jacek Rysz, Marek Dąbrowa, Paulina Gąsiorek and Agata Bielecka-Dąbrowa*   Pages 4413 - 4423 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Introduction: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channel receptors, distributed throughout central nervous system, as well as in peripheral ganglia and some non-neuronal cells. Cytisine, a qulinolizidine alkaloid, could be considered a high affinity ligand of those receptors. It is a partial agonist of β2*-containing receptors and a full agonist of α7 and β4*-containing receptors.

Current indication: At present, pharmacodynamic properties of cytisine are leveraged only in a few European countries where it is available as medicinal product (Desmoxan and Tabex) indicated in the pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction. Cytisine mimics the influence of nicotine on α4β2* receptors, but with higher affinity and lower activity. It lowers rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in smoking persons and reduces withdrawal symptoms and craving in quitting ones.

Potential indications: The results of non-clinical studies suggest that cytisine could affect ethanol consumption, has an antidepressant and neuroprotective effect and could be useful in reducing body mass and preventing weight gain. Although there is a lack of research on cytisine in the treatment of areca nuts usage, the preliminary data suggest its usefulness. The combination of cytisine and Trolox C was selected as a possible effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. Though these drugs alone are not effective, their theoretical usefulness was confirmed in animal models.

Summary: Treatment with cytisine is an effective, cost-efficient, affordable and well tolerated nicotine addiction therapy. Potential new indications for cytisine include the treatment of alcoholism, areca nuts usage, Parkinson’s disease, an autonomic-system failure. Further studies are necessary.

Keywords:

Cytisine, smoking cessation, depression, obesity, alcoholism, Parkinson's disease.

Affiliation:

Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549, Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549, Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549, Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549, Department of Neurology and Ischemic Strokes, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90- 549, Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549



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