Yiu To Yeung, Faisal Aziz, Angelica Guerrero-Castilla and Sandro Arguelles* Pages 1449 - 1484 ( 36 )
During the past decade, an abundance of new evidence highlighted the importance of inflammation in the development of chronic pathologies such as neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. However, most of the current therapies do not address the underlying problem and better therapies are urgently needed. A growing number of researchers have discovered various signaling pathways that are associated with the initiation and progression of inflammation. Among different pathways, we will focus on three classical inflammatory pathways: p38 MAPK, IL-6/JAK/STAT3 and PI3K; and a non-classical inflammatory pathway, the Hippo. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been linked to various inflammatory modulators such as FoxO1/3, TNFα, IL-6, COX2, HIF-1α, AP-1, JAK and STAT. In this review, the molecular mechanisms, associated pathologies and selected drugs (both preclinical and clinical) of these signaling pathways will be summarized. Finally, limitations and potential risks of anti-inflammatory drugs will also be discussed.
Inflammation, anti-inflammatory drug, p38 MAPK, IL-6, JAK/STAT, PI3K, hippo pathway.
China-US (Henan) Hormel Cancer Institute, Zhengzhou, China-US (Henan) Hormel Cancer Institute, Zhengzhou, Quimica y Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Casilla 121, Iquique 1100000, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville