Chen Guang-Yi, Ge Li-Sha and Li Yue-Chun* Pages 365 - 378 ( 14 )
The morbidity of myocarditis demonstrates an upward tendency by years, is commonly defined as the inflammation of myocytes and is caused by multiple factors. With the development of the molecular biological technique, great breakthroughs in the diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of myocarditis have recently been achieved. Several questions remain unresolved, however, including standard treatment approaches to myocarditis, which remain controversial and ambiguous. Heart rate, as an independent risk factor, has been shown to be related to cardiac disease. Recent studies also show that the autonomic nervous system is involved in immunomodulatory myocarditis processes. Heart rate reduction treatment is recommended in myocarditis based on a number of animal experiments and clinical trials. It is possible that heart rate-lowering treatments can help to attenuate the inflammatory response and myocyte injury and reverse ventricular remodeling. However, how to execute the protective effects of heart rate reduction on myocarditis is still not clear. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis and pathophysiological process of viral myocarditis and propose heart rate lowering as a therapeutic target for myocarditis, especially in light of the third-generation β-blockade carvedilol and funny channel blocker ivabradine. We also highlight some additional beneficial effects of such heart rate reduction agents, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, anti-nitrosative stress, anti-fibrosis and antiapoptosis properties.
Heart rate, myocarditis, autonomic nervous system, carvedilol, ivabradine, anti-inflammatory.
Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Department of Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000