Simona Balestrini* and Sanjay M. Sisodiya Pages 5667 - 5690 ( 24 )
Background: Epileptic encephalopathies represent the most severe epilepsies, with onset in infancy and childhood and seizures continuing in adulthood in most cases. New genetic causes are being identified at a rapid rate. Treatment is challenging and the overall outcome remains poor. Available targeted treatments, based on the precision medicine approach, are currently few.Objective: To provide an overview of the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies with known genetic determinants, including established treatment, anecdotal reports of specific treatment, and potential tailored precision medicine strategies. Method: Genes known to be associated to epileptic encephalopathy were selected. Genes where the association was uncertain or with no reports of details on treatment, were not included. Although some of the genes included are associated with multiple epilepsy phenotypes or other organ involvement, we have mainly focused on the epileptic encephalopathies and their antiepileptic treatments. Results: Most epileptic encephalopathies show genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The treatment of seizures is difficult in most cases. The available evidence may provide some guidance for treatment: for example, ACTH seems to be effective in controlling infantile spams in a number of genetic epileptic encephalopathies. There are potentially effective tailored precision medicine strategies available for some of the encephalopathies, and therapies with currently unexplained effectiveness in others. Conclusions: Understanding the effect of the mutation is crucial for targeted treatment. There is a broad range of disease mechanisms underlying epileptic encephalopathies, and this makes the application of targeted treatments challenging. However, there is evidence that tailored treatment could significantly improve epilepsy treatment and prognosis.
Seizures, antiepileptic treatment, precision medicine, genomics, Epileptic encephalopathies, phenotypes.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, and Epilepsy Society, Chalfont-St- Peter, Bucks, Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, and Epilepsy Society, Chalfont-St- Peter, Bucks