Carme Perez-Quilis, J. Derek Kingsley, Kabir Malkani, Gianfranco Cervellin, Giuseppe Lippi and Fabian Sanchis-Gomar* Pages 4650 - 4657 ( 8 )
It was initially assumed that heart rate and arterial blood pressure were modulated by normal respiration and muscle contraction. The arterial baroreflex, an inverse relationship between blood pressure and heart rate, was later reported. Nonetheless, it was then assumed that those responses involved vagal modulation. We summarize available evidence on the modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise as well as its potential implications on blood pressure (BP) control. Numerous studies have tried to clarify whether aerobic exercise modifies neurally-mediated vasoconstriction, but they report contradictory results. In view of these incongruities, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize available evidence on the modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise as well as its potential implications on BP control. We mainly focus on the effects of aerobic exercise in both heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate and heart rate variability have been indistinctly considered similar metrics, but they have completely different meanings when properly used. Both are risk markers in cardiac disease, whereas heart rate variability is also an index of sympathovagal modulation of heart rate. On the other hand, heart rate recovery has been also used as an index for mirroring both cardiovascular fitness and autonomic function, and can be used as a measure of vagal reactivation. Importantly, it is now wellknown that a reduced rate of heart rate recovery represents a powerful predictor of overall mortality. In this review, due to its complexity, we have included studies in which any of these three parameters have been analyzed.
Exercise, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial baroreflex, autonomous nervous system, hypertension.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia and Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion INCLIVA, Valencia, Cardiovascular Dynamics Laboratory, Exercise Physiology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, Emergency Department, Academic Hospital of Parma, Parma, Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York