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Protein Phosphatase-1 –targeted Small Molecules, Iron Chelators and Curcumin Analogs as HIV-1 Antivirals

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 28 ]

Author(s):

Xionghao Lin, Tatyana Ammosova, Namita Kumari and Sergei Nekhai*   Pages 4122 - 4132 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Despite efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication, current antiviral drugs are not able to eradicate HIV-1 infection. Permanent HIV-1 suppression or complete eradication requires novel biological approaches and therapeutic strategies. Our previous studies showed that HIV-1 transcription is regulated by host cell protein phosphatase-1. We also showed that HIV-1 transcription is sensitive to the reduction of intracellular iron that affects cell cycle-dependent kinase 2. We developed protein phosphatase 1-targeting small molecules that inhibited HIV-1 transcription. We also found an additional class of protein phosphatase-1-targeting molecules that activated HIV-1 transcription and reported HIV-1 inhibitory iron chelators and novel curcumin analogs that inhibit HIV-1. Here, we review HIV-1 transcription and replication with focus on its regulation by protein phosphatase 1 and cell cycle dependent kinase 2 and describe novel small molecules that can serve as future leads for anti-HIV drug development.

Results: Our review describes in a non-exhaustive manner studies in which HIV-1 transcription and replication are targeted with small molecules. Previously, published studies show that HIV-1 can be inhibited with protein phosphatase-1-targeting and iron chelating compounds and curcumin analogs. These results are significant in light of the current efforts to eradicate HIV-1 through permanent inhibition. Also, HIV-1 activating compounds can be useful for “kick and kill” therapy in which the virus is reactivated prior to its inhibition by the combination antiretroviral therapy.

Conclusion: The studies described in our review point to protein phosphatase-1 as a new drug target, intracellular iron as subject for iron chelation and novel curcumin analogs that can be developed for novel HIV-1 transcription- targeting therapeutics.

Keywords:

HIV-1, Tat, CDK9, CDK2, protein phosphatase-1, iron chelators, curcumin.

Affiliation:

Center for Sickle Cell Disease, 1840 7th Street, N.W. HURB1, Suite 202, Washington DC 20001, Center for Sickle Cell Disease, 1840 7th Street, N.W. HURB1, Suite 202, Washington DC 20001, Center for Sickle Cell Disease, 1840 7th Street, N.W. HURB1, Suite 202, Washington DC 20001, Center for Sickle Cell Disease, 1840 7th Street, N.W. HURB1, Suite 202, Washington DC 20001



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