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A Critical Review of Bioactive Food Components, and of their Functional Mechanisms, Biological Effects and Health Outcomes

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 19 ]

Author(s):

Rosa Perez-Gregorio and Jesus Simal-Gandara   Pages 2731 - 2741 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and onethird of all cancers [1].

Method: Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods. These foods are frequently designated “functional” when they contain nutritional components required for healthy living or “nutraceuticals” when intended to treat or prevent disease or disorders through a variety of bioactive (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolaemic) functions that are performed by functional enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, fibres, phytosterols, peptides, proteins, isoflavones, saponins or phytic acid, among other substances.

Results: Some agricultural and industrial residues have proven to be excellent choices as raw materials for producing bioactive compounds and have been proposed as potentially safe natural sources of antimicrobials and/or antioxidants for the food industry. Functional food ingredients containing bioactive compounds could be used as plant extracts by pharmaceutical and food industries.

Conclusion: Bioactive food components influence health outcomes.

Keywords:

Bioactive food components, biomarkers, health outcomes, future prospects, nutraceuticals, functional enzymes.

Affiliation:

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, Porto, Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo – Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense



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