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Dry Eye Disease: Present Challenges in the Management and Future Trends

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 28 ]


Zahraa Al-Saedi, Allison Zimmerman, Rinda Devi Bachu, Surajit Dey, Zahoor Shah, Reginald Baugh and Sai H.S. Boddu   Pages 4470 - 4490 ( 21 )


Dry eye disease (DED) is a tear film disorder resulting in hyperosmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. DED is also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and dry eye syndrome. DED represents a significant public health issue, particularly in older adults, and needs more research and attention. Despite the urgent need for safe and effective pharmacotherapies, there is currently only one approved medication, Restasis®, to tackle DED. In this review article, we present an overview of DED, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and risk factors of DED. Special emphasis is placed on current treatment options for DED such as artificial tears, lipid-containing lubricants, liposomal spray, inserts, anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant drops, antibiotics, dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids, autologous serum, intense-pulsed-light (IPL), punctual plugs, moisture-retaining eyeglasses, hydrophilic bandage contact lenses and secretagogues. The review also summarizes trends in DED treatment that are patented and are currently under investigation in clinical trials.


Dry eye disease, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management of DED, artificial tears, tear fluids, cyclosporine A, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.


Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Toledo HSC, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3000 Arlington Ave. (MS1013), Toledo, OH 43614.

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