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Imaging and Laboratory Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 10 ]


Maria Grazia Andreassi, Amalia Gastaldelli, Aldo Clerico, Piero A. Salvadori, Rosa Sicari and Eugenio Picano   Pages 1131 - 1141 ( 11 )


Imaging and laboratory biomarkers are an essential support to modern practice of medicine, allowing a better identification, severity titration, staging and follow-up of atherosclerosis and heart failure disease. This review provides an overview of imaging, biochemical and genetic biomarkers used in clinical practice and for research purposes in order to evaluate the 4 different aspect of patient vulnerability to cardiovascular disease: arterial; blood; myocardial; metabolic vulnerability. Yet, no single perfect biomarker exists and there is wide room for optimization and integration between clinical evaluation and biomarker evaluation. In general, a targeted approach tailored on the individual patient should be preferred to a carpet diagnostic bombing, which will lead to an exorbitant multiplier of costs, risks and inappropriate testing.




, , , , , CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

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