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Research Article

Zamzam Water Mitigates Cardiac Toxicity Risk through Modulation of GUT Microbiota and the Renin-angiotensin System

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 14 ]


Ryan Adnan Sheikh, Mohammad Shahid Nadeem, Turky Omar Asar, Mohammed A. Almujtaba, Salma Naqvi, Fahad A. Alabassi, Naif A.R. Almalki, Vikas Kumar and Firoz Anwar*   Pages 1115 - 1127 ( 13 )


Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to exert a substantial global influence in specific areas due to population growth, aging, microbiota, and genetic/environmental factors. Drinking water has a strong impact on the health of an individual. Further, emerging evidence has highlighted the therapeutic potential and benefits of Zamzam water (Zam).

Objective: We investigated the influence of Zam on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity, elucidating its consequential effects on GUT microbiota dysbiosis and hepatic and renal functions.

Methods: Male rats were categorized into four groups: Group 1 as Normal control (NC), Group 2 as Zamzam control (ZC), Group 3 Disease control (DC) and Group 4 as Therapeutic control (DZ) treated with Zam against doxorubicin-induced disease at a dose of 1mg/kg boy weight) intraperitoneally (i.p).

Results: Significant dysbiosis in the composition of GM was observed in the DC group along with a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in serum levels of Zinc, interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6 and Angiotensin II (Ang II), while C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and CKMB increased significantly (restoration of Zinc ions (0.72 ± 0.07 mcg/mL) compared to NC. Treatment with Zamzam exhibited a marked abundance of 18-times to 72% in Romboutsia, a genus of firmicutes, along with lowering of Proteobacteria in DZ followed by significant restoration of Zinc ions (0.72 ± 0.07 mcg/mL), significant (p ˂ 0.05) reduction in CRP (7.22 ± 0.39 mg/dL), CKMB (118.8 ± 1.02 U/L) and Fibrinogen (3.18 ± 0.16 mg/dL), significant (p < 0.05) increase in IL-10 (7.22 ± 0.84 pg/mL) and IL-6 (7.18 ± 0.40 pg/ml), restoration of Ang II (18.62 ± 0.50 nmol/mL/min), marked increase in renin with normal myocyte architecture and tissue orientation of kidney, and restoration of histological architecture of hepatocyte.

Conclusion: Zam treatment mitigated cardiac toxicity risk through the modulation of GUT microbiota and the renin-angiotensin system and tissue histology effectively.


Doxorubicin, GUT microbiota, dysbiosis, zamzam, zinc, CRP, angiotensin, renin.


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