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Review Article

Efficacy and Safety Analysis of Botox Application and Iatrogenic Botulism: Panacea or Peril?

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 8 ]


Ozgur Karcioglu*, Canan Akman and Ilknur Atnis   Pages 578 - 588 ( 11 )


Clostridium botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) creates temporary paralysis in the muscles by acting on the muscle-nerve junction. It is injected into the mimic muscles when a decrease in the movements of the mimic muscles is desired. Despite many favorable applications, the use of BoNT-A is not without drawbacks. Although there is no expected serious side effect on health in BoNT-A treatments, various problems can be encountered in patients treated for aesthetic purposes. Botulism is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome, which is caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which acts on the nervous system, vegetative forms of C. botulinum can only survive in anaerobic conditions, while spore forms are common in nature and can withstand harsh conditions. Botulism can stem from bacterial spores which release toxin in the body; in the form of enteric botulism, and wound botulism. The cases that develop ‘iatrogenic botulism’ after such procedures are usually those receiving high-dose toxin for therapeutic purposes. The treatment of botulism mainly consists of anti-toxin therapy and, if necessary, intensive care to prevent organ failures, including respiratory support. This article aims to cover all these issues related to botulism and other adverse outcomes related to BoNT-A injection in light of the most recent literature.


Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, Botox, botulism, iatrogenic botulism, paresis, respiratory paralysis.


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