Call for Papers  

Article Details


Systematic Review Article

Effects of High Efficacy Multiple Sclerosis Disease Modifying Drugs on the Immune Synapse: A Systematic Review

Author(s):

Spyros N. Deftereos, George D. Vavougios, Christos Bakirtzis, George Hadjigeorgiou and Nikolaos Grigoriadis*   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Background: Co-signaling and adhesion molecules are important elements for creating immune synapses between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells; they positively or negatively regulate the interaction between a T cell receptor with its cognate antigen, presented by the major histocompatibility complex.

Objectives: We conducted a systematic review on the effects of High Efficacy Disease Modifying Drugs (HEDMDs) for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) on the co-signaling and adhesion molecules that form the immune synapse.

Methods: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and other sources to identify clinical or preclinical reports on the effects of HEDMDs on co-signaling and adhesion molecules that participate in the formation of immune synapses in patients with MS or other autoimmune disorders. We included reports on cladribine tablets, anti- CD20 monoclonal antibodies, S1P modulators, inhibitors of Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, and natalizumab.

Results: In 56 eligible reports among 7340 total publications, limited relevant evidence was uncovered. Not all co-signaling and adhesion molecules have been studied in relation to every HEDMD, with more data being available on the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (that affect CD80, CD86, GITR and TIGIT), cladribine tablets (affecting CD28, CD40, ICAM-1, LFA-1) and the S1P modulators (affecting CD86, ICAM-1 and LFA-1) and less on Natalizumab (affecting CD80, CD86, CD40, LFA-1, VLA-4) and Alemtuzumab (affecting GITR and CTLA-4).

Conclusion: The puzzle of HEDMD effects on the immune synapse is far from complete. The available evidence suggests that distinguishing differences exist between drugs and are worth pursuing further.

Keywords:

Multiple Sclerosis,Autoimmune Disorders,Disease Modifying Drugs,Immune Synapse,Co-Signaling molecules,Adhesion molecules

Affiliation:



Read Full-Text article