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The Estrogenic Burden on Vascular Risk in Male-to-Female Transsexuals

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 34 ]


Eirini Lioudaki, Emmanuel S. Ganotakis, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis and Devaki R. Nair   Pages 3815 - 3822 ( 8 )


Transsexualism refers to individuals that identify themselves as members of the opposite gender and who strive to acquire the physical appearance and psychosocial role compatible with that gender. Gender reassignment therapy is applied through hormonal treatment ± surgical intervention in addition to psychological support. Hormone treatment for male-to-female transsexuals includes estrogen supplementation ± suppression of androgen secretion or action. Sex hormones are important determinants of the metabolic profile. The impact on cardiovascular disease appears to be gender-related but overall evidence remains conflicting. Gender reassignment therapy has been associated with elevated triglyceride concentrations, often accompanied by an increase in high density lipoprotein levels, reduced circulating homocysteine (Hcy), uric acid and creatinine levels as well as an adverse effect on glycemic control. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function are also affected in various ways, while alterations in hemostatic and fibrinolytic factors favor thrombosis (arterial and/or venous). Male-to-female transsexuals may be adversely affected by both estrogen administration and androgen deprivation, as reported in prostate cancer. Therefore, vascular risk factor screening and potential intervention may be required prior to and during gender reassignment therapy (both hormone and surgical).


Male-to-female transsexuals,transsexuals,cardiovascular,estrogen,antiandrogen,gender reassignment therapy,Transsexualism,EE,E2,transdermal,HRT,cyproter-one acetate (CA),flutamide,nilutamide,non-steroidal antiandrogens,spironolactone,diuretic,antiandro-genic,long-acting gonadotropin,finasteride,MetS,type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM),homocysteine,hemostatic,fibrinolytic,vascular function,Estrogen treatment,M-value,FIBRINOLYTIC FACTORS,RENAL FUNCTION,Creatinine,Homocysteine (Hcy),Uric Acid,ADIPOKINES,creatinine values,interleukin-6,superoxide dismutase,glutathione (GSH),asymmetric dimethylarginine,Tumor necrosis factor (TNF),sex hormone binding globulin


, , , Academic Head of Department, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK.

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