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Simultaneous Study of Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Potential of <i>Dryopteris ramosa</i> (C. Hope) C. Chr. using GC-Mass and Computational Modeling on the Xylene-induced Ear Oedema in Mouse Model

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 41 ]


Khalil Said, Muhammad Hamayun, Mamoona Rauf*, Sumera Afzal Khan, Muhammad Arif, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Mikhlid H. Almutairi and Sajid Ali*   Pages 3324 - 3339 ( 16 )


Introduction: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extraction and identification of the potential phytochemicals from the Methanolic Extract of Dryopteris ramosa (MEDR) using GC-MS profiling for validating the traditional uses of MEDR its efficacy in inflammations by using in-vitro, in-vivo and in silico approaches in anti-inflammatory models.

Methods: GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of a total of 59 phytochemical compounds. The human red blood cells (HRBC) membrane stabilization assay and heat-induced hemolysis method were used as in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The in-vivo analysis was carried out through the Xylene-induced mice ear oedema method. It was found that MEDR at a concentration of 20 μg, 30 μg, and 40 μg showed 35.45%, 36.01%, and 36.33% protection to HRBC in a hypotonic solution, respectively. At the same time, standard Diclofenac at 30 μg showed 45.31% protection of HRBC in a hypotonic solution.

Results: The extract showed inhibition of 25.32%, 26.53%, and 33.31% cell membrane lysis at heating at 20 μg, 30 μg, and 40 μg, respectively. In comparison, standard Diclofenac at 30 μg showed 50.49% inhibition of denaturation to heat. Methanolic extract of the plant exhibited momentous inhibition in xylene-induced ear oedema in mice treated with 30 μg extract were 47.2%, 63.4%, and 78.8%, while inhibition in mice ear oedema treated with 60 μg extract was 34.7%, 43.05%, 63.21% and reduction in ear thickness of standard drug were 57.3%, 59.54%, 60.42% recorded at the duration of 1, 4 and 24 hours of inflammation. Molecular docking and simulations were performed to validate the anti-inflammatory role of the phytochemicals that revealed five potential phytochemicals i.e. Stigmasterol,22,23dihydro, Heptadecane,8methyl, Pimaricacid, Germacrene and 1,3Cyclohexadiene,_5(1,5dimethyl4hexenyl)-2methyl which revealed potential or significant inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL-6) in the docking analysis.

Conclusion: The outcome of the study signifies that MEDR can offer a new prospect in the discovery of a harmonizing and alternative therapy for inflammatory disease conditions.


<i>Dryopteris ramosa</i>, anti-inflammatory activity, GC-MS profiling, HRBC membrane stabilization, heat-induced hemolysis, Xylene- induced mice ear oedema.


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