Rajdeep Tyagi, Kanchan Yadav, Nitin Srivastava* and Ram Sagar* Pages 255 - 277 ( 23 )
Background: The escalation of cancer worldwide is one of the major causes of economy burden and loss of human resources. According to the American Cancer Society, there will be 1,958,310 new cancer cases and 609,820 projected cancer deaths in 2023 in the United States. It is projected that by 2040, the burden of global cancer is expected to rise to 29.5 million per year, causing a death toll of 16.4 million. The hemostasis regulation by cellular protein synthesis and their targeted degradation is required for normal cell growth. The imbalance in hemostasis causes unbridled growth in cells and results in cancer. The DNA of cells needs to be targeted by chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, but at the same time, their efficacy and toxicity also need to be considered for successful treatment.
Objective: The objective of this study is to review the published work on pyrrole and pyridine, which have been prominent in the diagnosis and possess anticancer activity, to obtain some novel lead molecules of improved cancer therapeutic.
Methods: A literature search was carried out using different search engines, like Sci-finder, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, RSC etc., for small molecules based on pyrrole and pyridine helpful in diagnosis and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. The research findings on the application of these compounds from 2018-2023 were reviewed on a variety of cell lines, such as breast cancer, liver cancer, epithelial cancer, etc.
Results: In this review, the published small molecules, pyrrole and pyridine and their derivatives, which have roles in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers, were discussed to provide some insight into the structural features responsible for diagnosis and treatment. The analogues with the chromeno-furo-pyridine skeleton showed the highest anticancer activity against breast cancer. The compound 5-amino-N-(1-(pyridin-4- yl)ethylidene)-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazides was highly potent against HEPG2 cancer cell. Redaporfin is used for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, biliary tract cancer, cisplatin-resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and pigmentation melanoma, and it is in clinical trials for phase II. These structural features present a high potential for designing novel anticancer agents for diagnosis and drug development.
Conclusion: Therefore, the N- and C-substituted pyrrole and pyridine-based novel privileged small Nheterocyclic scaffolds are potential molecules used in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review discusses the reports on the synthesis of such molecules during 2018-2023. The review mainly discusses various diagnostic techniques for cancer, which employ pyrrole and pyridine heterocyclic scaffolds. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of N- and C-substituted pyrrole and pyridine-based scaffolds has been described, which works against different cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7, A549, A2780, HepG2, MDA-MB-231, K562, HT- 29, Caco-2 cells, Hela, Huh-7, WSU-DLCL2, HCT-116, HBL-100, H23, HCC827, SKOV3, etc. This review will help the researchers to obtain a critical insight into the structural aspects of pyrrole and pyridine-based scaffolds useful in cancer diagnosis as well as treatment and design pathways to develop novel drugs in the future.
Pyrrole, pyridine, nitrogen heterocycles, diagnosis, anticancer activity, chemotherapeutic agents.