Harneet Marwah, Janmejay Pant, Jiten Yadav, Kamal Shah and Hitesh Kumar Dewangan* Pages 3442 - 3457 ( 16 )
Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global pandemic, particularly affecting individuals with pre-existing lung conditions and potentially leading to pulmonary fibrosis. Age and healthcare system limitations further amplify susceptibility to both diseases, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The intricate relationship between Coronavirus disease 2019 and lung cancer highlights their clinical implications and the potential for early detection through biosensor techniques involving hedgehog and mucin signaling. This study highlights the connection between Coronavirus disease 2019 and lung cancer, focusing on the mucosa, angiotensin- altering enzyme 2 receptors, and their impact on the immune system. It details the inflammatory mechanisms triggered by Coronavirus disease 2019, which can result in pulmonary fibrosis and influence the cancer microenvironment. Various cytokines like Interleukins-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha are examined for their roles in both diseases. Moreover, the review delves into the Hedgehog signaling pathways and their significance in lung cancer, particularly their influence on embryonic cell proliferation and tissue integrity. Mucin signaling is another vital aspect, highlighting the diverse mucin expression patterns in respiratory epithelial tissues and their potential as biomarkers. The review concludes with insights into diagnostic imaging techniques like chest computed tomography, Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for early lung cancer detection, emphasizing the crucial role of biosensors in identifying specific biomarkers for early disease detection. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the clinical impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 on lung cancer patients and the potential for biosensors utilizing hedgehog and mucin signaling for early detection. It underscores the ongoing need for research and innovation to address these critical healthcare challenges.
Biosensors, COVID-19, diagnostic imaging, hedgehog signaling, lung cancer, mucin signaling.