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Antibody-modified Gold Nanobiostructures: Advancing Targeted Photodynamic Therapy for Improved Cancer Treatment


Negin Alavi, Parvaneh Maghami, Azar Fani Pakdel, Majid Rezaei and Amir Avan*   Pages 1 - 20 ( 20 )


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an innovative, non-invasive method of treating cancer that uses light-activated photosensitizers to create reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, challenges associated with the limited penetration depth of light and the need for precise control over photosensitizer activation have hindered its clinical translation. Nanomedicine, particularly gold nanobiostructures, offers promising solutions to overcome these limitations. This paper reviews the advancements in PDT and nanomedicine, focusing on applying antibody-modified gold nanobiostructures as multifunctional platforms for enhanced PDT efficacy and improved cancer treatment outcomes. The size, shape, and composition of gold nanobiostructures can significantly influence their PDT efficacy, making synthetic procedures crucial. Functionalizing the surface of gold nanobiostructures with various molecules, such as antibodies or targeting agents, bonding agents, PDT agents, photothermal therapy (PTT) agents, chemo-agents, immunotherapy agents, and imaging agents, allows composition modification. Integrating gold nanobiostructures with PDT holds immense potential for targeted cancer therapy. Antibody-modified gold nanobiostructures, in particular, have gained significant attention due to their tunable plasmonic characteristics, biocompatibility, and surface functionalization capabilities. These multifunctional nanosystems possess unique properties that enhance the efficacy of PDT, including improved light absorption, targeted delivery, and enhanced ROS generation. Passive and active targeting of gold nanobiostructures can enhance their localization near cancer cells, leading to efficient eradication of tumor tissues upon light irradiation. Future research and clinical studies will continue to explore the potential of gold nanobiostructures in PDT for personalized and effective cancer therapy. The synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of gold nanobiostructures, their interaction with light, and their impact on photosensitizers' photophysical and photochemical properties, are important areas of investigation. Strategies to enhance targeting efficiency and the evaluation of gold nanobiostructures in vitro and in vivo studies will further advance their application in PDT. The integrating antibody-modified gold nanobiostructures in PDT represents a promising strategy for targeted cancer therapy. These multifunctional nanosystems possess unique properties that enhance PDT efficacy, including improved light absorption, targeted delivery, and enhanced ROS generation. Continued research and development in this field will contribute to the advancement of personalized and effective cancer treatment approaches


phototoxicity,photodynamic therapy,cancer,gold,nanoplatforms,photosensitizers


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