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Research Article

Spray-dried Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Enhancing Berberine Bioavailability <i>via</i> Oral Administration

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 38 ]


Van Hong Nguyen*, Khoa Nguyen Manh Le and Mai Chau Ngoc Nguyen   Pages 3050 - 3059 ( 10 )


Background: Berberine (BBR), an Eastern traditional medicine, has expressed novel therapeutic activities, especially for chronic diseases like diabetes, hyperlipemia, hypertension, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the low oral bioavailability of BBR has limited the applications of these treatments. Hence, BBRloaded solid lipid nanoparticles (BBR-SLNs) were prepared to improve BBR absorption into systemic circulations via this route.

Methods: BBR-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (BBR-SLNs) were prepared by ultrasonication and then transformed into solid form via spray drying technique. The size morphology of BBR-SLNs was evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Crystallinity of BBR and interaction of BBR with other excipients were checked by spectroscopic methods. Entrapment efficiency of BBR-SLNs as well as BBR release in gastrointestinal conditions were also taken into account. Lastly, SLN's cytotoxicity for loading BBR was determined with human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293).

Results: Stearic acid (SA), glyceryl monostearate (GMS), and poloxamer 407 (P407) were selected for BBRSLNs fabrication. BBR-SLNs had homogenous particle sizes of less than 200 nm, high encapsulation efficiency of nearly 90% and loading capacity of above 12%. BBR-SLN powder could be redispersed without significant changes in physicochemical properties and was stable for 30 days. Spray-dried BBR-SLNs showed a better sustained in vitro release profile than BBR-SLNs suspension and BBR during the initial period, followed by complete dissolution of BBR over 24 hours. Notably, cell viability on HEK293 even increased up to 150% compared to the control sample at 100 μg/mL BBR-unloaded SLNs.

Conclusion: Hence, SLNs may reveal a promising drug delivery system to broaden BBR treatment for oral administration.


Solid lipid nanoparticles, berberine, bioavailability, spray drying technique, ultrasonication, traditional medicine.


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