Wen Xi Goh, Yih Yih Kok* and Chiew Yen Wong Pages 2827 - 2840 ( 14 )
Today, cardiovascular diseases are among the biggest public health threats worldwide. Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease with complex aetiology and pathogenesis, predispose many of these conditions, including the high mortality rate-causing ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Nevertheless, despite the alarming prevalence and absolute death rate, established treatments for atherosclerosis are unsatisfactory in terms of efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance. The rapid advancement of technologies in healthcare research has paved new treatment approaches, namely cell-based and nanoparticle-based therapies, to overcome the limitations of conventional therapeutics. This paper examines the different facets of each approach, discusses their principles, strengths, and weaknesses, analyses the main targeted pathways and their contradictions, provides insights on current trends as well as highlights any unique mechanisms taken in recent years to combat the progression of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis, cell-based therapy, nanoparticle-based therapy, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory disease, complex aetiology.