Vahideh Keyvani, Samaneh Mollazadeh, Nahid Kheradmand, Reihaneh Alsadat Mahmoudian, Amir Avan* and Kazem Anvari* Pages 2684 - 2691 ( 8 )
Prostate cancer (PC) is identified as a heterogeneous disease. About 20 to 30% of PC patients experience cancer recurrence, characterized by an increase in the antigen termed serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Clinical recurrence of PC commonly occurs after five years. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has an intricate genomic background. Therapies that target genomic changes in DNA repair signaling pathways have been progressively approved in the clinic. Innovative therapies like targeting signaling pathways, bone niche, immune checkpoint, and epigenetic marks have been gaining promising results for better management of PC cases with bone metastasis. This review article summarizes the recent consideration of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in local and metastatic prostate cancer, highlighting the clinical insinuations of the novel understanding.
Signaling pathways, targeted therapy, prostate cancer, molecular mechanisms, heterogeneous disease, antigen.