Nidhi Puranik, Dhananjay Yadav and Minseok Song* Pages 2534 - 2544 ( 11 )
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) immune-mediated disease that mainly strikes young adults and leaves them disabled. MS is an autoimmune illness that causes the immune system to attack the brain and spinal cord. The myelin sheaths, which insulate the nerve fibers, are harmed by our own immune cells, and this interferes with brain signal transmission. Numbness, tingling, mood swings, memory problems, exhaustion, agony, vision problems, and/or paralysis are just a few of the symptoms. Despite technological advancements and significant research efforts in recent years, diagnosing MS can still be difficult. Each patient's MS is distinct due to a heterogeneous and complex pathophysiology with diverse types of disease courses. There is a pressing need to identify markers that will allow for more rapid and accurate diagnosis and prognosis assessments to choose the best course of treatment for each MS patient. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an excellent source of particular indicators associated with MS pathology. CSF contains molecules that represent pathological processes such as inflammation, cellular damage, and loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. Oligoclonal bands, neurofilaments, MS-specific miRNA, lncRNA, IgG-index, and anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies are all clinically utilised indicators for CSF in MS diagnosis. In recent years, a slew of new possible biomarkers have been presented. In this review, we look at what we know about CSF molecular markers and how they can aid in the diagnosis and differentiation of different MS forms and treatment options, and monitoring and predicting disease progression, therapy response, and consequences during such opportunistic infections.
Multiple sclerosis, diagnosis, cerebrospinal fluid, biomarkers, neurofilaments, exosomes.