Camila S. Padilha*, Bárbara M. Antunes, Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, David H. St-Pierre and Fabio S. Lira* Pages 2524 - 2533 ( 10 )
Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors (SB) have promoted a dramatic increase in the incidence of a host of chronic disorders over the last century. The breaking up of sitting time (i.e., sitting to standing up transition) has been proposed as a promising solution in several epidemiological and clinical studies. In parallel to the large interest it initially created, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that breaking up prolonged sedentary time (i.e., > 7 h in sitting time) could reduce overall mortality risks by normalizing the inflammatory profile and cardiometabolic functions. Recent advances suggest that the latter health benefits, may be mediated through the immunomodulatory properties of extracellular vesicles. Primarily composed of miRNA, lipids, mRNA and proteins, these vesicles would influence metabolism and immune system functions by promoting M1 to M2 macrophage polarization (i.e., from a pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotype) and improving endothelial function. The outcomes of interrupting prolonged sitting time may be attributed to molecular mechanisms induced by circulating angiogenic cells. Functionally, circulating angiogenic cells contribute to repair and remodel the vasculature. This effect is proposed to be mediated through the secretion of paracrine factors. The present review article intends to clarify the beneficial contributions of breaking up sitting time on extracellular vesicles formation and macrophage polarization (M1 and M2 phenotypes). Hence, it will highlight key mechanistic information regarding how breaking up sitting time protocols improves endothelial health by promoting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses in human organs and tissues.
Microparticles, innate immune cells, hypokinesia, sedentary behavior, immunomodulatory, angiogenic cells