Farhan Younas, Muhammad Zaman, Waqar Aman, Umer Farooq, Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja and Muhammad Wahab Amjad*
Hydrogels are a three-dimensional (3D) network of hydrophilic polymers. The physical and chemical crosslinking of polymeric chains maintains the structure of the hydrogels even when they are swollen in water. They can be modified with thiol by thiol epoxy, thiol-ene, thiol-disulfide, or thiol-one reactions. Their application as a matrix for protein and drug delivery, cellular immobilization, regenerative medicine, and scaffolds for tissue engineering was initiated in the early 21st century. This review focuses on the ingredients, classification techniques, and applications of hydrogels, types of thiolation by different thiol-reducing agents, along with their mechanisms. In this study, different applications for polymers used in thiolated hydrogels, including dextran, gelatin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cyclodextrins, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, alginate, poloxamer, polygalacturonic acid, pectin, carrageenan gum, arabinoxylan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gellan gum, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are reviewed.
Hydrogels,thiolation,chitosan,biomedical,drug delivery,novel targeting