Evangelos Oikonomou*, Maria Xenou, George E. Zakynthinos, Paraskevas Tsaplaris, Stamatios Lampsas, Evanthia Bletsa, Ioannis Gialamas, Konstantinos Kalogeras, Athina Goliopoulou, Maria I. Gounaridi, Theodoros Pesiridis, Aikaterini Tsatsaragkou, Manolis Vavouranakis, Gerasimos Siasos and Dimitris Tousoulis Pages 1844 - 1862 ( 19 )
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Although benefit has been attributed to the strict control of hyperglycemia with traditional antidiabetic treatments, novel antidiabetic medications have demonstrated cardiovascular (CV) safety and benefits by reducing major adverse cardiac events, improving heart failure (HF), and decreasing CVD-related mortality. Emerging data underline the interrelation between diabetes, as a metabolic disorder, and inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Conventional glucose-lowering medications demonstrate controversial CV effects. Dipeptidyl peptidase- 4 inhibitors have not only failed to prove to be beneficial in patients with coronary artery disease, but also their safety is questionable for the treatment of patients with CVD. However, metformin, as the first-line option for type 2 DM (T2DM), shows CVD protective properties for DM-induced atherosclerotic and macrovascular complications. Thiazolidinedione and sulfonylureas have questionable effects, as evidence from large studies shows a reduction in the risk of CV events and deaths, but with an increased rate of hospitalization for HF. Moreover, several studies have revealed that insulin monotherapy for T2DM treatment increases the risk of major CV events and deaths from HF, when compared to metformin, although it may reduce the risk of myocardial infarction. Finally, this review aimed to summarize the mechanisms of action of novel antidiabetic drugs acting as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors that show favorable effects on blood pressure, lipid levels, and inflammation, leading to reduced CVD risk in T2DM patients.
Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic drugs, pathophysiology, SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP1RAs.