Ayesha Waheed, Saima Zameer, Kudsiya Ashrafi, Asad Ali, Niha Sultana, Mohd Aqil*, Yasmin Sultana and Zeenat Iqbal Pages 1326 - 1340 ( 15 )
Apigenin is a natural polyphenolic compound widely distributed as a glycoside in fruits and vegetables. Apigenin belongs to BCS class II with low solubility, which leads to poor absorption and bioavailability. It is mostly absorbed from the small intestine and extensively metabolized through glucuronidation and sulfation processes. Apigenin is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also used as a chemopreventive drug in the management of various cancers. Pharmacological effects of apigenin have a wide range, from neuroprotective to treating renal disorders. Apigenin is non-toxic in nature and acts through various pathways (JAK/STAT, Wnt/β-catenin, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB) to exert its therapeutic efficacy. Numerous formulations have been researched to enhance the bioavailability and pharmacological effects of apigenin. Combinatorial therapies are also researched to minimize the side-effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. The review presents pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of apigenin. Apigenin is safe for the treatment and management of numerous diseases. It can be easily incorporated into nanoformulation alone or in combination with other active ingredients to widen the therapeutic window. This review intends to help in drug optimization and therapeutic efficacy maximization for future studies.
Flavonoid, ADME, mechanism of action, pharmacological activity, drug delivery, antioxidant.