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Review Article

Targeting of SOS1: from SOS1 Activators to Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 22 ]


Gerhard Hamilton*, Sandra Stickler and Barbara Rath   Pages 1741 - 1746 ( 6 )


The most frequent mutated oncogene KRAS in lung cancer is targeted by KRAS G12C-directed drugs, such as Sotorasib and Adagrasib. Still, other alleles frequently expressed in pancreatic and colon cancer may be attacked indirectly by hitting the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SOS1 that loads and activates KRAS. The first modulators of SOS1 were found to act as agonists and defined a hydrophobic pocket at the catalytic site. High throughput screenings resulted in the detection of SOS1 inhibitors Bay-293 and BI-3406 comprising amino quinazoline scaffolds optimized for binding to the pocket by various substituents. The first inhibitor, BI-1701963, is in clinical studies alone or in combination with a KRAS inhibitor, a MAPK inhibitor or chemotherapeutics. An optimized agonist, VUBI-1, shows activity against tumor cells by destructive overactivation of cellular signaling. This agonist was used to formulate a proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC), that labels SOS1 for degradation by proteasomal degradation through a linked VHL E3 ligase ligand. This PROTAC exhibited the highest SOS1-directed activity due to target destruction, recycling and removal of SOS1 as a scaffolding protein. Although other first PROTACs have entered clinical trials, each conjugate must be meticulously adapted as an efficient clinical drug.


KRAS, SOS1, PROTAC, agonist, inhibitors, proteasome.


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