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Systematic Review Article

Effects of Coffee Supplementation on Homocysteine and Leptin Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 1 ]


Luis E. Simental-Mendía*, Mario Simental-Mendía and Mayela Ríos-Mier   Pages 30 - 36 ( 7 )


Background: It has been reported that the consumption of antioxidant foods and beverages may benefit the development of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the impact of coffee consumption on some of these factors, such as homocysteine and leptin is controversial. Some clinical trials have suggested that coffee administration increases plasma total homocysteine levels, while others have found no significant changes in leptin concentrations.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of coffee supplementation on homocysteine and leptin concentrations in a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus,, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to September 29, 2021. A fixed-effects model and the generic inverse variance weighting method were used for meta-analysis.

Results: The meta-analysis demonstrated that coffee administration significantly increases homocysteine levels (WMD: 0.55 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.93, p = 0.005, I2 = 0%) but has no significant changes in leptin concentrations (WMD: 1.34 ng/mL, 95% CI: -0.78, 3.45, p = 0.21, I2 = 0%). Additionally, the sensitivity analysis was robust for both homocysteine and leptin levels.

Conclusion: The results of the present meta-analysis revealed that coffee supplementation raises serum homocysteine concentrations but has no effect on circulating leptin levels.


Coffee, homocysteine, leptin, meta-analysis, antioxidant foods, beverages, cardiovascular risk factors.


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