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General Review Article

The Neurotoxic Mechanisms of Graphene Family Nanomaterials at the Cellular Level: A Solution-based Approach Review

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 44 ]


Mohammad Mahdi Ghazimoradi, Farhan Vahdat Azad, Fatemeh Jalali and Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei*   Pages 3572 - 3581 ( 10 )


The graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) have been recognized to have potential applications in biomedicine, especially in the rag nostic, drug delivery and neuroimaging. Multiple studies have examined the neurotoxicity of GFNs to assay their toxic effects on organisms and ecosystems. In this article, we reviewed the different neurotoxicity effects of GFNs at intracellular levels, including nucleus-related effects and cytosolic mechanisms, as well as extracellular levels, including effects on enzyme activity, oxidative stress, behavior, neurotransmitters, and central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, for the sake of the solution, we discussed the reducing ways of graphene toxicity. A schematic description is shown in Fig. (1).


Graphene family, nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, molecular, cellular, neurotransmitters, animal models.


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