Soumya Pal, Adesh K. Saini, Ankur Kaushal, Shagun Gupta, Naseem A. Gaur, Anil K. Chhillar, Anil K. Sharma, Vijai K. Gupta and Reena V. Saini* Pages 3478 - 3485 ( 8 )
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and has engrossed researchers' attention toward its detection and prevention at early stages. Primarily associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, the disease has also shown its emergence due to dysbiosis in microbiota. The microbiota not only plays a role in modulating the metabolisms of metastatic tissue but also has a keen role in cancer therapy. The immune cells are responsible for secreting various chemokines and cytokines, and activating pattern recognition receptors by different microbes can lead to the trail by which these cells regulate cancer. Furthermore, mixed immune reactions involving NK cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and lymphocytes have shown their connection with the microbial counterpart of the disease. The microbes like Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Enterococcus faecalis and their metabolites have engendered inflammatory reactions in the tumor microenvironment. Hence the interplay between immune cells and various microbes is utilized to study the changing metastasis stage. Targeting either immune cells or microbiota could not serve as a key to tackling this deadly disorder. However, harnessing their complementation towards the disease can be a powerful weapon for developing therapy and diagnostic/prognostic markers. In this review, we have discussed various immune reactions and microbiome interplay in CRC, intending to evaluate the effectiveness of chemotherapy and immunotherapy and their parallel relationship.
Colorectal cancer, microbiota, immunotherapy, tumor microenvironment, immune cells, microbes.