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General Review Article

Medicinal Chemistry of Pyrazolopyrimidine Scaffolds Substituted with Different Heterocyclic Nuclei

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 41 ]


Galal H. Elgemeie*, Rasha A. Azzam, Wafaa A. Zaghary, Mohammed A. Khedr and Gihad E. Elsherif   Pages 3374 - 3403 ( 30 )


Background: Medicinal chemistry of pyrazolopyrimidine scaffolds substituted with different heterocyclic nuclei has attracted great attention due to their wide range of biological activities that have been reported. Pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold is an important privileged heterocycle nucleus in drug discovery.

Methods: All pharmacological activities of pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold have been mentioned, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitubercular, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity agents. In addition, it was used in both osteoporosis and neurological disorders. The difference in potency and bioavailability of pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives refers to the substituent groups that can increase the activity against specific targets and enhance their selectivity.

Results: This review provides an overview of different synthetic pathways, structure activity relationships, and preclinical studies of pyrazolopyrimidine scaffolds substituted with a variety of heterocyclic nuclei, as well as it provides a discussion on the significant biological findings of these important scaffolds. In addition, it provides some insights on the different macromolecular targets that pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold can effectively work on, such as; cyclin dependent kinases; CDK2, CDK7, and CDK9, checkpoint kinases; CHK1 and CHK2 and their correlation with the anticancer activity, PI3Kα, transient receptor potential canonical 6, B-Raf kinase, Interleukin- 1 receptor-associated kinase 4, B-cell lymphoma 6, TRKA-C kinase, potent kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, colon cancer cell line (CaCo-2), domain receptor kinase (KDR), HepG-2 carcinoma cell, FLT3. The antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, A. niger, and A. clavatus are discussed.

Conclusion: This review provides an overview of the different pharmacological activities of the pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold and its correlation with chemical structure. Some exciting new developments in pyrazolopyrimidine scaffolds are also presented in this review.


Pyrazolopyrimidine scaffolds, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, kinase inhibitors, structure activity relationship.


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