Öner Özdemir*, Azize Yasemin Göksu Erol and Ümmügülsüm Dikici Pages 3261 - 3268 ( 8 )
In this narrative review, firstly, we describe the characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the pathogenesis of its infection in humans. Later, the importance of mast cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and their role in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) will be discussed. SARS-CoV-2 is a transmissible agent frequently detected in some mammalian species and also in humans. Literature data published in PubMed that covered mast cells' role in cytokine release syndrome and related manifestations of COVID-19 disease were reviewed by the authors independently and collectively. Recommendations for the management of cytokine release syndrome and related manifestations were made by the authors. Mast cells are concentrated in environments where they encounter viruses, bacteria, and toxins, especially in the skin, nasal mucosa, lungs, airways, gastrointestinal tract, and meninges, to prevent their entry into the human body. Once SARS-CoV-2 enters the host, it stimulates one of the mast cells, together with pre-existing innate immune cells that form a defensive barrier in the submucosa of the respiratory tract and nasal cavities against pathogenic microorganisms. The roles of mast cells in SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation and cytokine storms have recently been one of the hot topics in the literature. Physicians should keep in mind the mast cells' role in cytokine release syndrome and related manifestations of COVID-19 disease. Mast cell-targeting therapies (e.g., H1 and H2 receptor antagonists) can reduce the severity and course of the disease when used after complications associated with COVID-19 are suspected or seen.
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, mast cell, cytokine storm, inflammation, mast cell activation syndrome.