Tuğba Arıkoğlu, Aylin Kont Ozhan and Semanur Kuyucu* Pages 209 - 223 ( 15 )
Although an increase in the incidence of childhood anaphylaxis has been reported, it remains underdiagnosed. Foods are the most common triggers for anaphylaxis, particularly cow’s milk, hen’s egg, and nuts. Other common causes of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents include venom and drugs. The skin is the most commonly affected organ, but approximately 10% of patients with anaphylaxis may present without skin symptoms, which can lead to misdiagnosis. Recognition of anaphylaxis is a great challenge in children, possibly due to a lack of vigilance among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals, but also in part due to discrepancies in the clinical definition of anaphylaxis. In addition, anaphylaxis in infants often poses a distinct challenge because the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and the inability of infants to describe their symptoms may hinder prompt diagnosis and treatment. Given the rapid onset of anaphylaxis and its unpredictable severity, rapid assessment and appropriate treatment are critical. Although the morbidity and mortality associated with anaphylaxis are potentially preventable with the timely administration of life-saving epinephrine, anaphylaxis is still undertreated worldwide. Long-term management of pediatric anaphylaxis is a patientcentered, multidimensional approach that focuses on the recognition of anaphylaxis, the use of epinephrine auto- injectors, and prevention of recurrences. Therefore, close communication and collaboration between the child, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and schools are the cornerstone of long-term care. This paper is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of current perspectives and concepts related to anaphylaxis in the pediatric population in light of recent guidelines and literature.
Anaphylaxis, adrenaline, infants, food-induced anaphylaxis, management, auto-injector, prevention.