Alexandre Fisette, Domenico Sergi, Alyssa Breton-Morin, Savanah Descôteaux and Maria-Grazia Martinoli* Pages 3068 - 3081 ( 14 )
Over the last three decades, neurodegenerative diseases have received increasing attention due to their frequency in the aging population and the social and economic burdens they are posing. In parallel, an era’s worth of research in neuroscience has shaped our current appreciation of the complex relationship between nutrition and the central nervous system. Particular branches of nutrition continue to galvanize neuroscientists, in particular the diverse roles that bioactive food derivatives play on health and disease. Bioactive food derivatives are nowadays recognized to directly impact brain homeostasis, specifically with respect to their actions on cellular mechanisms of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and autophagy. However, ambiguities still exist regarding the significance of the influence of bioactive food derivatives on human health. In turn, gut microbiota dysbiosis is emerging as a novel player in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, several routes of communication exist between the gut and the brain, where molecules are either released in the bloodstream or directly transported to the CNS. As such, bioactive food derivatives can modulate the complex ecosystem of the gut-brain axis, thus, targeting this communication network holds promises as a neuroprotective tool. This review aims at addressing one of the emerging aspects of neuroscience, particularly the interplay between food bioactive derivatives and neurodegeneration. We will specifically address the role that polyphenols and omega-3 fatty acids play in preventing neurodegenerative diseases and how dietary intervention complements available pharmacological approaches.
Bioactive food derivatives, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, gut-brain axis, polyphenols, probiotics, fatty acids.