Maria Beatrice Bilò*, Maria Giovanna Danieli, Gianluca Moroncini and Matteo Martini* Pages 165 - 177 ( 13 )
Hymenoptera stings can induce allergic and occasionally fatal reactions, and are responsible for significant morbidity and deterioration in health-related quality of life. The diagnostic work-up must consider the medical history of patients, in the context of venom allergy epidemiology and Hymenoptera taxonomy, and the clinical manifestations of the reactions, to channel the available in vivo and in vitro tests towards the most accurate diagnosis and the consequent appropriate management, also considering the risk profile of the patients on a precision-medicine approach. All these aspects are covered by this work that aims at providing an up-to-date review to increase the awareness of this topic among interested stakeholders, like healthcare professionals and political decision makers, who can contribute to the proper immediate and long-term management of venom allergy and anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis, hymenoptera taxonomy, health-related quality of life, cardiovascular, hymenoptera venom allergy, systemic reactions.