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Review Article

COVID-19: Pathophysiology, Transmission, and Drug Development for Therapeutic Treatment and Vaccination Strategies

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 27 ]


Vishal Kumar Singh, Himani Chaurasia, Richa Mishra, Ritika Srivastava, Aditya K. Yadav, Jayati Dwivedi, Prashant Singh and Ramendra K. Singh*   Pages 2211 - 2233 ( 23 )


COVID-19, a dreaded and highly contagious pandemic, is flagrantly known for its rapid prevalence across the world. Till date, none of the treatments are distinctly accessible for this life-threatening disease. Under the prevailing conditions of a medical emergency, one creative strategy for the identification of novel and potential antiviral agents gaining momentum in research institutions and progressively being leveraged by pharmaceutical companies is target-based drug repositioning/repurposing. Continuous monitoring and recording of results offer anticipation that this strategy may help to reveal new medications for viral infections. This review recapitulates the neoteric illation of COVID-19, its genomic dispensation, molecular evolution via phylogenetic assessment, drug targets, the most frequently worldwide used repurposed drugs and their therapeutic applications, and a recent update on vaccine management strategies. The available data from solidarity trials exposed that the treatment with several known drugs, viz. lopinavir-ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, etc. had displayed various antagonistic effects along with no impactful result in the diminution of mortality rate. The drugs, like remdesivir, favipiravir, and ribavirin, have proved to be quite safer therapeutic options for treatment against COVID-19. Similarly, dexamethasone, convalescent plasma therapy and oral administration of 2DG are expected to reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients.


COVID-19, pandemic, antiviral, repurposing, vaccine, vaccination strategies.


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