Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Shahriar Shahi, Javad Mahmoudi, Afsaneh Farjami, Ahad Bazmani, Behrooz Naghili, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj and Sara Salatin* Pages 2330 - 2342 ( 13 )
Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a global healthcare concern with high rates of death and disease. CNS infections mainly include meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscesses. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and parasites are the most common causes of neuroinfections. There are many types of medications used in the treatment of CNS infections, but drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major challenge to overcome. The BBB is a specialized multicellular barrier separating the neural tissue from the peripheral blood circulation. Unique characteristics of the BBB allow it to tightly control the movement of ions and molecules. Thus, there is a critical need to deal with these conditions with the aim of improving novel antimicrobial agents. Researchers are still struggling to find effective drugs to treat CNS infections. Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery has been considered a profound substitute to solve this problem because NPs can be tailored to facilitate drug transport across the BBB. NPs are colloidal systems with a size range of 1-1000 nm, which can be used to encapsulate therapeutics, improve drug transport across the BBB, and target specific brain areas in CNS infections. A wide variety of NPs has been displayed for the CNS delivery of therapeutics, especially when their surfaces are coated with targeting moieties. This study aimed to review the available literature on the application of NPs in CNS infections.
Central nervous system, blood-brain barrier, infection, meningitis, antimicrobial drug delivery, bacteria, nanoparticle.