Na Li and Hong Zhou* Pages 2131 - 2139 ( 9 )
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the chronic microvascular complications of diabetes and is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Fortunately, clinical trials have demonstrated that sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors could decrease proteinuria and improve renal endpoints and are promising agents for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The renoprotective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors cannot be simply attributed to their advantages in aspects of metabolic benefits, such as glycemic control, lowering blood pressure, and control of serum uric acid, or improving hemodynamics associated with decreased glomerular filtration pressure. Some preclinical evidence suggests that sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors exert their renoprotective effects by multiple mechanisms, including attenuation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses, anti-fibrosis and anti-inflammation, protection of podocytes, suppression of megalin function, improvement of renal hypoxia, restored mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy, as well as inhibition of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3. In the present study, the detailed molecular mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors with the actions of diabetic nephropathy were reviewed, with the purpose of providing the basis for drug selection for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, diabetic nephropathy, renal protection, molecular mechanism, renal hypoxia, podocyte protection.