Xiongye Xu, Yanli Qiu, Simin Chen, Shuaishuai Wang, Ruifu Yang, Baomo Liu, Yufei Li, Jiating Deng, Yan Su, Ziying Lin, Jincui Gu, Shaoli Li, Lixia Huang* and Yanbin Zhou*
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains one of the deadliest malignant diseases, with high incidence and mortality worldwide. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, consisting of IGF-1, IGF-2, related receptors (IGF-1R, -2R), and high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP 1-6), is associated with promoting fetal development, tissue growth, and metabolism. Emerging studies have also identified the role of the IGF axis in NSCLC, including cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Upregulation of IGE-1 and IGF-2, overexpression of IGF-1R, and dysregulation of downstream signaling molecules involved in the PI-3K/Akt and MAPK pathways jointly increase the risk of cancer growth and migration in NSCLC. At the genetic level, some noncoding RNAs could influence the proliferation and differentiation of tumor cells through the IGF signaling pathway. The resistance to some promising drugs might be partially attributed to the IGF axis. Therapeutic strategies targeting the IGF axis have been evaluated, and some have shown promising efficacy. In this review, we summarize the biological roles of the IGF axis in NSCLC, including the expression and prognostic significance of the related components, noncoding RNA regulation, involvement in drug resistance, and therapeutic application. This review offers a comprehensive understanding of NSCLC and provides insightful ideas for future research.
NSCLC, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-binding proteins, signaling, treatment, cancer therapeutic resistance.