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Review Article

An Updated Review on Properties, Nanodelivery Systems, and Analytical Methods for the Determination of 5-Fluorouracil in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 18 ]


Aline Martins dos Santos*, Alberto Gomes Tavares Junior, Suzana Gonçalves Carvalho and Marlus Chorilli*   Pages 1501 - 1512 ( 12 )


5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite drug used for over 70 years as first-line chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, such as head, neck, breast, and colorectal cancer. 5-FU acts mainly by inhibiting thymidylate synthase, thereby interfering with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication or by 5-FU incorporating into DNA, causing damage to the sequence of nucleotides. Being analogous to uracil, 5-FU enters cells using the same transport mechanism, where a is converted into active metabolites such as fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP), fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP), and fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate (FdUTP). Currently, there are several nano delivery systems being developed and evaluated at the preclinical level to overcome existing limitations to 5-FU chemotherapy, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, nanoemulsions, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles. Therefore, it is essential to choose and develop suitable analytical methods for the quantification of 5-FU and its metabolites (5- fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine) in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Among the analytical techniques, chromatographic methods are commonly the most used for the quantification of 5-FU from different matrices. However, other analytical methods have also been developed for the determination of 5-FU, such as electrochemical methods, a sensitive, selective, and precise technique, in addition to having a reduced cost. Here, we first review the physicochemical properties, mechanism of action, and advances in 5-FU nanodelivery systems. Next, we summarize the current progress of other chromatographic methods described to determine 5- FU. Lastly, we discuss the advantages of electrochemical methods for the identification and quantification of 5- FU and its metabolites in pharmaceutical and biological samples.


Analytical methods, 5-fluorouracil, chromatographic, electrochemical, nanodrug delivery systems, mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties.


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