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Systematic Review Article

Direct Oral Anticoagulants Compared with Vitamin K Antagonists for Left Ventricular Thrombus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 23 ]


Shu Fang, Bao-Zhen Zhu, Fan Yang, Zhe Wang, Qian Xiang and Yan-Jun Gong*   Pages 1902 - 1910 ( 9 )


Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the guideline-recommended therapy for some hypercoagulable diseases but are used off-label for left ventricular thrombus (LVT) owing to a paucity of evidence. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of DOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for LVT treatment.

Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for studies that compared DOACs with VKAs for LVT treatment. Outcome indicators included stroke or systemic embolism (SSE), thrombus resolution, bleeding, and death. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3, and the meta-analysis is registered at PROSPERO (CRD 42020211376).

Results: We included 12 observational studies (n = 2262 patients). SSE was similar for DOACs and VKAs groups (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.54, P = 0.95). For thrombus resolution, DOACs were not significantly different to VKAs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.54-2.45, P = 0.71). DOACs and VKAs had a similar bleeding risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.45-1.35, P = 0.37). DOACs and VKAs groups had a comparable mortality (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.50-1.65, P = 0.76). Subgroup analysis showed that post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients using DOACs had a lower risk of SSE (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.87, P = 0.03) and bleeding (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.81, P = 0.01).

Conclusion: DOACs and VKAs showed no difference in the safety and efficacy of patients with LVT. DOACs might be superior to VKAs for LVT treatment in post-AMI patients.


Left ventricular thrombus, direct oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists, warfarin, systolic function, ischemic bowel.


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