Mahfoozur Rahman, Waleed H. Almalki, Sunil K. Panda, Aman K. Das, Saad Alghamdi, Kriti Soni, Abdul Hafeez, Mayank Handa, Sarwar Beg* and Ziyaur Rahman* Pages 595 - 608 ( 14 )
Microsponges delivery systems (MDS) are highly porous, cross-linked polymeric systems that activate due to temperature, pH, or when rubbed. MDS offer a wide range of advantages, like controlled drug release, site-specific action, stability over a broad range of pH, less irritation, cost-effectiveness, and improved patient compliance. They can be transformed into various dosage forms like creams, gels, and lotions. MDS are suitable for the treatment of topical disorders like acne, psoriasis, dandruff, eczema, scleroderma, hair loss, skin cancer, and other dreadful diseases. The applications of MDS in drug delivery are not limited to topical drug delivery but are also explored for oral, parenteral, and pulmonary drug deliveries. Microsponges have been studied for colon targeting of drugs and genes. Additionally, MDS have several applications such as sunscreen, cosmetics, and over-the-counter (OTC) products. Furthermore, MDS do not actuate any irritation, genotoxicity, immunogenicity, or cytotoxicity. Therefore, this review extensively highlights microsponges, their advantages, key factors affecting their characteristics, their therapeutic applications in topical disorders and in cancer, their use as cosmetics, as well as recent advances in MDS and the associated challenges.
Microsponges, nanosponges, oral delivery, topical applications, skin irritation, intestinal membrane.