Pravin Shende* and Shubham Gupta Pages 1000 - 1010 ( 11 )
Background: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are considered the main molecular component in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The LPS molecule in the bacterial cell wall acts as a primary physical barrier and protects gram-negative bacteria from the surrounding environment. LPS (endotoxins) show immunomodulatory therapeutic properties as well as toxicity to the host cell, along with several potential applications.
Objective: This review article aims to describe the recent developments of lipopolysaccharides in nanocarrier systems for various applications such as vaccination, cancer chemotherapy, and immune stimulants action. Different nanocarriers like cubosomes, niosomes, dendrimers, and metal nanoparticles used in the delivery of actives are employed to decorate lipopolysaccharide molecules superficially.
Methods: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the author was conducted.
Conclusion: Commercially available lipid nanoparticles contribute to many advances as promising nanocarriers in cancer therapy and are used as a vaccine adjuvant by improving the immune response due to their properties such as size, shape, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide-decorated nanoparticles change the host’s tolerability and increase the effectiveness of molecules in cancer immunotherapy. These nanoconjugate systems enhance overall immunogenic response and effectiveness in vaccine immunotherapy and targeted therapy, not only limited to human applications but also for poultry and aquaculture. Newer opportunities include the use of lipopolysaccharides for the treatment and management of diseases with unique characteristics like the presence of lipoprotein that acts as an alternative for bacterial infections over conventional dosage forms.
Lipopolysaccharides, nano-conjugated vaccines, OMVs vaccines, bacterial vaccines, submicron vaccines, prophylactic vaccines, cancer immunotherapy.
Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai