Maria Hayes* Pages 1332 - 1341 ( 10 )
Food derived bioactive peptides can be generated from various protein sources and usually consist of between 2-30 amino acids with bulky, side-chain aromatic amino acids preferred in the ultimate and penultimate positions at the C-terminal end of the amino acid chain. They are reported to impart a myriad of preventative health beneficial effects to the consumer once ingested and these include heart health benefits through inhibition of enzymes including renin (EC 220.127.116.11) and angiotensin- I-converting enzyme (ACE-1; EC 18.104.22.168) within the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) anti-inflammatory (due to inhibition of ACE-I and other enzymes) and anti-cancer benefits, prevention of type-2 diabetes through inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), bone and dental strength, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects and several others. Peptides have also reported health benefits in the treatment of asthma, neuropathic pain, HIV and wound healing. However, the structure, amino acid composition and length of these peptides, along with the quantity of peptide that can pass through the gastrointestinal tract and often the blood-brain barrier (BBB), intact and reach the target organ, are important for the realisation of these health effects in an in vivo setting. This paper aims to collate recent important research concerning the generation and detection of peptides in the laboratory. It discusses products currently available as preventative healthcare peptide options and relevant legislation barriers to place a food peptide product on the market. The review also highlights useful in silico computer- based methods and analysis that may be used to generate specific peptide sequences from proteins whose amino acid sequences are known and also to determine if the peptides generated are unique and bioactive. The topic of food-derived bioactive peptides for health is of great interest to scientific research and industry due to evolving drivers in food product innovation, including health and wellness for the elderly, infant nutrition and optimum nutrition for sports athletes and the humanisation of pets. This paper provides an overview of what is required to generate bioactive peptide containing hydrolysates, what methods should be used in order to characterise the beneficial health effects of these hydrolysates and the active peptide sequences, potential applications of bioactive peptides and legislative requirements in Europe and the United States. It also highlights success stories and barriers to the development of peptide-containing food products that currently exist.
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I), antihypertensive activity, Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in silico, peptides, renin inhibitory, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, mental health.
Food BioSciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15