Niki Katsiki*, George D. Dimitriadis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis Pages 1941 - 1951 ( 11 )
Hyperuricemia, has been traditionally related to nephrolithiasis and gout. However, it has also been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiometabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Pathophysiologically, elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels may be associated with abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism.
In this narrative review, we consider the associations between hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Furthermore, we comment on the available evidence linking elevated SUA levels with the incidence and outcomes of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver in subjects with T2DM. The effects of antidiabetic drugs (e.g. metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and insulin) on SUA concentrations are also reviewed.
Serum uric acid, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver, antidiabetic drugs.
First Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Center, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG