Shah Khalid*, Faisal A. Almalki, Taibi Ben Hadda*, Ammar Bader, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Malika Berredjem, Eman R. Elsharkawy and Ali M. Alqahtani* Pages 1564 - 1578 ( 15 )
Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant that has been recognized for its benefits since ancient times by several medicinal systems, including those of China, India, Greece, and Egypt. Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces some of the greatest controversies surrounding its legalization and use as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundred phytoconstituents, including the infamous “cannabinoids”. It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where cannabis is still facing legal obstacles. The current review focuses on the most recent literature pertaining to various applications of cannabinoids, with a special focus on the medicinal aspect of these phytochemicals. Peer-reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids are the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work, i.e., application of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drugs, considering their immense diversity of usage. Unfortunately, however, many of the mares have never been researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizon for the use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex® (cannabidiol, used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex®(Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis). Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important applications or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicable diseases, glaucoma, and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, cannabis has a myriad of bioactive compounds that have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.
Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids, THC, CBD, therapeutic and industrial applications.
Department of Botany, Islamia College, Peshawar, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Almukkarramah, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Collage of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain, Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry LCOA, Synthesis of Biomolecules and Molecular Modelling Group, Badji-Mokhtar - Annaba University, Box 12, 23000 Annaba, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Northern Borders University, Arar, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, 62529