Urooj Fatima, Syed Saif A. Rizvi, Neha Raina, Saher Fatima, Safikur Rahman, Md. Amjad Kamal and Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan* Pages 4223 - 4231 ( 9 )
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection accompanied by severe or fatal pneumonia-like symptoms and sometimes death. It has posed to be an ongoing global health emergency caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a sudden outbreak and a large number of infections and deaths, it became a major concern all over the world. The options available as effective therapeutics should be urgently exercised to handle this pandemic. So far, no specific and accurate anti- SARS-CoV-2 treatment is recommended because of the absence of sufficient clinical evidence. In such cases, the clinical use of available drugs is always considered to be on top priority. A broad-spectrum antiviral agent, remdesivir, is found effective in many cases and recommended by many clinicians in many countries. This drug acts as a potential inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein and thus likely to be efficacious in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tocilizumab is currently recommended by many hospitals as an alternative treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients. Tocilizumab has been administered to control cytokine storms that occur due to the release of proinflammatory cytokine, including interleukin 6. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are also used in hospitals to handle severe COVID-19 patients. Currently, plasma therapy has been exercised as a therapeutic alternative, especially to handle severe COVID-19 patients. In addition, herbal medicines are expected to play a significant role in the control and prevention of COVID-19. All these therapeutic options have their advantages and limitations. This review highlights the therapeutic potential of these available drugs, along with their mechanism of action and shortcomings. We have provided detailed information on available therapeutic options, which have proved to be effective in improving clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 patients.
SARS‐CoV‐2, COVID‐19, remdesivir, Chinese herbal medicine, tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, plasma therapy, cytokine storm.
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., Department of Surgery, Brigham, and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, U.P, Department Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., Munshi Singh College, BR Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, Bihar 845401, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar New Delhi 110025