Niki Katsiki*, Kalliopi Kotsa, Anca P. Stoian and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis Pages 5637 - 5649 ( 13 )
Hypoglycaemia represents an important side effect of insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues. It can occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Also, some associations between hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular (CV) risk have been reported. Several mechanisms may be involved, including the sympathoadrenal system, hypokalaemia, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, platelets, inflammation, atherothrombosis and impaired autonomic cardiac reflexes. This narrative review discusses the associations of hypoglycaemia with CV diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, carotid disease and peripheral artery disease (PAD), as well as with dementia. Severe hypoglycaemia has been related to CHD, CV and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, there is evidence supporting an association between hypoglycaemia and cardiac arrhythmias, potentially predisposing to sudden death. The data linking hypoglycaemia with stroke, carotid disease and PAD is limited. Several factors may affect the hypoglycaemia-CV relationships, such as the definition of hypoglycaemia, patient characteristics, co-morbidities (including chronic kidney disease) and antidiabetic drug therapy. However, the association between hypoglycaemia and dementia is bilateral. Both the disorders are more common in the elderly; thus, glycaemic goals should be carefully selected in older patients. Further research is needed to elucidate the impact of hypoglycaemia on CV disease.
Hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular risk, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dementia, carotid disease, cardiac arrhythmias, mortality.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic diseases Department, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital Campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London